Catfish Farming in Nigeria: What it takes to succeed

By Ukwuegbu, Ugochukwu | MD Divine Fish Farm, Ogun State, Nigeria

The business of catfish farming in Nigeria is not difficult to engage yourself in if you have the resources to do so. Catfish farming involves growing catfish to table-size, marketing them and selling them at a good price. It is a viable business that many people have gone in and out of for various reasons. Some have succeeded at it and made handsome profit while others have failed and abandoned it altogether.

Nonetheless, more people want to get into the business of catfish farming in Nigeria and they want to get it right. They want to succeed at it and make profit and so I get regular emails and calls from such people on what they need to do to operate a viable catfish business in Nigeria. I will try and answer them in a simple way that has worked for me.

My advice is to start small. Start with growing say one thousand (1000) pieces of juvenile catfish to table size in 15 weeks and selling them. Here are tips on the basic things you need and how to go about it.

1. Facilities

Half plot of land;

Constant supply of fresh water from well or borehole;

3 Ponds each of about 8 square metres in area. The ponds can be made of concrete, tarpaulin, or polyvinyl chloride (PVC);

Plastic containers and one square metre of net.

2. Good breed of juvenile catfish  

What are fingerlings? Catfish aged 0 – 4 weeks.

What are juvenile catfish? Catfish aged 4 – 8 weeks.

What are the catfish species commonly grown in Nigeria? Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis, and hybrid of Clarias and Heterobranchus (Heteroclarias).

Which catfish breed is best for growing in Nigeria? All 3 mentioned above will do well if properly managed.

How do you know a good catfish breed? They are healthy and lively at the fingerlings stage.

3. Three – four months feeding budget.

It is important to ensure that you have a reliable supply of feed for the duration you grow your catfish. As of October, 2016 you need about two hundred thousand naira (N200, 000) to feed 1000 pieces of catfish from juvenile to table size in 15 weeks. Some brands of bagged floating catfish feed available in Lagos, Nigeria are Coppens and Vital feed which as of October, 2016 cost N11,500 and N5,800 per bag respectively. A bag holds 15kg of floating catfish feed.

4. Catfish farming activities

Feeding. Catfish are carnivorous animals. You feed the catfish 2 times daily in the mornings and evenings. You can feed 3 times daily too but be consistent with whichever number of times you choose to feed your catfish. When you feed the catfish spread the feed over the area of the pond so that every fish has a good chance of feeding well. Feed till satiation. Use quality feed. The cost per bag of quality feed might seem high but the aim is to grow the fish from juvenile to table size as quickly as possible in less than 16 weeks. In the long run feeding with quality feed saves time and money.

Change the catfish pond water regularly. Endeavour to change the water in the pond every 3 days. In the first month changing every 4 days will be okay.

Like human beings catfish grow at different rates. Sort the fish by size every 3 – 4 weeks and keep catfish of similar size in the same pond.

Catfish in the ponds should be spaced out. Overcrowding of catfish wastes feed and slows growth.

Favour the faster growing fish. Feed them well and prioritise their spacing. If you do it right they should hit table size in 10 – 12 weeks.

Sell your catfish as soon as they reach the marketable size you aim for. When you clear the faster growing fish you can space out the remaining fish to occupy the pond space vacated by the faster growing fish.

Catfish eat more feed as they grow older so the longer you keep them in the ponds when you can sell them at a good price the more costs you incur. A substantial cost of operating a catfish farm goes to buying their feed.

5. Marketing

The profitability of your catfish farming activities depends on the effectiveness of your marketing. Your marketing should begin the day you decide to go into the business. You should keep abreast of:

The price people buy their catfish from sellers in the market.

The price sellers buy their catfish from the catfish farms.

How sellers buy their catfish from the catfish farms.

The cost of catfish feed.

The total costs of running your catfish farming business.

6. Recording
Records are very important to your business. Types of records you should keep are:

Purchase records. This includes the day you buy your fingerlings or juveniles, the quantity you buy, and the cost. You should also record the quantity of feed you buy, the days you buy them and the frequency with which you buy them. Also record the frequency with which you feed the catfish.

Financial records. You should record the costs of purchases you make as well as the value of sales you make. Record the money input to the business and the sources.

Customer Records. It is important that you know the people that buy from you and why they buy from you.

7. Know other farmers and farms around you. Let them know you too.

Understanding the above steps, implementing them and being committed to the enterprise of growing, marketing and selling your catfish are key to running a viable farm. When you master how to grow 1000 pieces of catfish to table size you will be better prepared to scale up the farm to grow 10, 000 or even 20, 000 catfish. That is when the real business begins.

Another step up the value chain of catfish farming in Nigeria is having the capability to process and preserve your catfish. This will be the subject of another write-up.

The current president of the African Development Bank and former minister of Agriculture and Rural Development in Nigeria, Dr Akinwumi Adesina, sees farming as a business. I see farming as business too and I encourage people who want to engage in farming to see farming in the same way.

Food will always sell because people will always eat.

Here are The Health Benefits of Using Shea Butter

THE local extraction of shea butter, mainly done by women, is quite laborious, sometimes requiring as much as 25 hours extracting barely a kilogram of butter.

A study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology by the Department of Pharmacology at the College of Medicine, of the University of Lagos, revealed that shea butter is an effective nasal decongestant. In the cosmetic industries, it has been found to retain its natural nutritional and medicinal attributes well cherished in skincare product lines.

The chemical compounds in the class of phenols have anti-aging benefits. Some female users say they apply it directly or in mixture of other jellies to achieve the purpose of reducing wrinkles, removal of black spots and maintaining a generally smooth skin. Another female user on a national radio programme in Lagos revealed its ability to reduce stretch marks (off colour lines on the skin).

Another female user, who is in the fifties claimed to have used the raw product as skin moisturizer with the effect that the wrinkle around her mouth and under the chin eased off considerably, making her look younger.

According to chemists, the higher the quantity of the liquid part of the butter called olein, the softer and more fragrant. This is known to help better absorption into the skin. It has found use as hair conditioners for dry and brittle hair, while it is also employed by soap makers that put small quantities of about seven per cent of the oils in the recipe.

World conferences have held in different places, including Nigeria, where issues on the economic, social and environmental aspects of shea, particularly on sourcing logistics, quality regulation, processing innovations, business modelling, social accountability, sustainable marketing, cosmetics formulation, soap-making, and biodiversity are discussed.

I Am confused and in pain, I need your advice.



Dear Davina, I am 23 years of age and in my final year in the university. I have been dating this guy for over 2 and a half years. I stayed with him for two years. He is the goofy type and I am too so at home we usually had lovely moments though we fight. Which is normal.
The Troubles
In our first year, I caught him cheating with another. He admitted he did wrong and begged me for forgiveness and I did forgive him. I later got to know it was not his fault. It was the girl who kept pushing herself on him every other day. He asked the girl to stop calling and texting his phone since its ruining our relationship. Then he blocked the girl.
I went home on one of the weekends to see my mum. On my return to his place (that was when we used to live together), I went in search of something from his wardrobe and I noticed he had 3 sets of designer perfumes which he has hidden from me and a new jalabia. When he got home I asked why he hid it from me he laughed and said he was not hiding it! He only was keeping it safe.
At that time, I was wondering how he had managed to buy such expensive perfumes because we were facing a small financial problem. I did my findings and I got to know the same girl he had warned and blocked was the one who got him the perfume and jalabia from Dubai.
All of a sudden, he started complaining I was unappreciative. I apologized for being unappreciative (which I wasn’t at all) and he knew!
One day, he told me to go back to my parents’ house since it wasn’t right for us to be living together. I understood perfectly that we both knew we were doing wrong, so we took the step for a healthy relationship. On one of the days I was packing my things, I had to copy something from his laptop since I had a few of my school assignments on it.
I went through his photos and I found pictures of that same girl on his laptop! I took photos of it and sent it to him to explain! He rather insulted me and asked me never to touch his laptop again! Which I obeyed. I cried myself to sleep that night.
I then moved out to my aunties place and we still had a cool relationship until he started again with me being unappreciative! He blocked my number from calls, text, unfriended me on Facebook, blocked me on WhatsApp and removed me from his snap!
Now my boyfriend is making money which I know. I went there one-night cos I had to study, and I had no light that evening. Upon entering his bedroom, I noticed my clothes were no longer in his wardrobe, where I kept my heels and slippers had been moved! I texted him to ask where my things where he didn’t text back. He came home with anger written on his face and told me he had kept them in his suit bag since he was cleaning up the room. I said nothing and gave him a fake smile…
Just 3 days ago I went to see him, and I found a used condom in the trash can inside the bathroom. I thought it was for his brother since his brother had come around! I searched the room for condoms and I found two packs in his waist bag. I wanted to call him out on it, but I just had patience with my heart!
Before I would leave I had a talk with him just to settle our difference. He told me! I should act like a single woman and do not involve him in my life since he does not care! I asked him for money to start a business and he said he will not give me bluntly!
He knows the state of my phone, I respectfully asked for a new phone since that is what I use to reach my customers and it’s in a deplorable state, but he told me bluntly that he would not change it.
I kept mute and cried my heart out. Before I would leave I saw on snap that another girl had posted his picture and covered his face with love emojis. I asked him about it and he said why am I worried about his picture and that he is out there making his money and am worried about a picture another female posted! I did the usual that night kept mute and cried myself to sleep.
The very girl he once told me he had blocked is the same girl he is marketing her catering service on his snap.! It is not easy getting my boyfriend to market my goods for me!
Please advise me. I love him so much and I am not willing to let go but these past few months the pain has been severe! I feel now that he is making money he wants to cut me off! I starved with him! I was down for him and I still am. I fasted and prayed to God for his restoration. I interceded on his behalf! When he was sick and down I was down too. When he stumbled and fell, and his friends gathered in glee … I called upon God to intervene. When he would cry I will mourn as though I lost a mother!
Is this what I get for being faithful and loyal? Is this what I get for dating just one man?? What hurts the most is he said “I (he) trust outsiders more than me” All I did was love him
Anna.

Cheque Transactions In Nigerian Banks Hit N1.32 Trillion In Three Months

About N1.32 trillion values of transactions were carried through cheque truncation in the first three months of the year.

Cheque truncation is the conversion of a physical cheque into a substitute electronic form for transmission to the paying bank. Cheque truncation reduces or eliminates the physical movement of cheques and reduces the time and cost of processing the cheque clearance system.

E-payment facts sheet from the Nigeria Inter-Bank Settlement System Plc (NIBSS) showed that the N1.32 trillion values were processed from 2.48 million volumes of transactions.

Read: ATMS RECORD TRANSACTIONS WORTH N1.56BN IN Q1 – NBS

The statistics also revealed that on a daily basis, within the three months, there were 27,512 volumes of cheques with a mean value of N531, 838. The total volume of corporate cheques processed was put at 1.4 million with a value of N0.85 Trillion, while the volume of individual cheques processed was 0.55 million with a N0.21 Trillion value.

Meanwhile, through the Bank Verification Number (BVN), Nigerian banks have been able to link 45.1 million unique account owners. There are, however, 65 million active bank customers.

The total number of bank accounts in the country was put at 108.3 million, out of which 70 million are active. The statistics put the total number of current accounts at 24.2 million; saving accounts 81.1 million. There are 7.4 million corporate accounts and 99.3 million individual accounts.

In terms of web payment, there was 9.63 million volume of transactions valued at N60.74 billion from January to March.

Read: NIGERIAN BANKING SECTOR RECORDS TRANSACTIONS WORTH N32.48 TRILLION IN Q1, 2018 – NBS (INFOGRAPHICS)

Meanwhile, the total number of mobile money customers in Nigeria as of March 2018 stood at 1.50 million with 5,304 enrolled agents. The volume of transaction within this period was put at 15.25 million valued at N329.12 billion. There are 21licensed mobile money operators in the country and they are integrated to NIBSS for interoperability.

Unfortunately, after about five years of operation in Nigeria, mobile money has only been able to attract just one per cent penetration.

Unlike in Ghana and Kenya where penetrations have reached 40 per cent and 60 per cent respectively, only about two million of Nigeria’s estimated 198 million populations.

The implication of this is that despite the innovation that comes with it, Nigerians are yet to tap from the huge benefit it carries.

MMarketwatchers have argued that the model operated in Nigeria, which is bank-led, has not been able to impact the initiative in the country adequately. The Executive Vice Chairman, Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), Prof. Umar Danbatta, at an interaction with journalists in Lagos, recently, lamented that mobile money is crawling at one per cent penetration in the country because it is bank-led.

According to him, another region, where the scheme is thriving has been because it was telco-led, “as such we need to re-direct our focus and ensure that appropriate model is adopted adequately.”

Danbatta said there should be effective cooperation among all the various stakeholders in the value chain that is the telecommunications operators, agents, CBN and the services providers too.

The NCC EVC revealed that discussions are on-going in the industry on how to get telcos to become super agents in the scheme of things.

“With the population, we have in the country, Nigeria should play big in the mobile money ecosystem in Africa. Only about one per cent that is about two million Nigerians is currently on the scheme. That is rather too poor. All hands must be on deck to revive that sub-sector of the economy.”

“If we are to improve on Nigeria’s digital landscape, we must revive the mobile ecosystem, which includes the mobile money scheme,” he stated.

SOURCE: https://brandspurng.com/cheque-transactions-in-nigerian-banks-hit-n1-32-trillion-in-three-months/

Please I need serious advice on what I did

I slept with my big sister’s husband. His manh00d was hard. I’m now feeling heat in my vag area, and looking for Bible passages to help me…lady cries out!

Popular Lagos-based Psychologist and Relationship therapist, Joro Olumofin, has taken to his Instagram blog page and shared the story of a lady who is filled with so much guilt after sleeping with her sister’s husband.

According to the lady who narrated the story on the popular online platform, she was alone with her sister’s husband one day and his huge manhood got erected and he entered her for behind, and since then, they’ve had s*x up to three times.

READ  I Woke Up By 6Am To Give Him A Bl0wj0b, Inserted His D!ck And A Terrible Thing Happened – Lady Narrates

She added that she’s about leaving their house after packing her things, but she is still feeling the heat of the intercourse in her v*gina.


Here’s the e-mail she sent to the Love Doctor;

How To Start A Presentation That Will Capture Your Audience

Presentation is an important skill in the 21st century. Whether you a student, career professional or entrepreneur, you will need to deploy your presentation skill at sometime in your life. However, most people always get the concept of presentation wrong and they will end up making the entire session boring. Phew! Anyway, this article will enlighten our readers on how to start a presentation.

The most important part of every presentation is the introduction. A good introduction sustains your audience’s attention, But if you get it wrong, the entire session will be boring.

Some of the tips on how to start a presentation that will capture your audience are;

Tips on How To Start A Presentation That Will Capture Your Audience

A successful presentation don’t just happen, it is always planned. Series of practices and brain racking must have been deployed before getting it right. Below are useful tips on how to start a presentation that will capture your audience.

#1 Ask Open Ended Questions

One of the best tips on how to start a presentation is to ask an open ended Question. An open ended question is one of the best ways to capture your audience during presentation.

It enables you to engage everybody during the presentation and carry them along. A good example of Open ended question is ” How has social media changed the way you live your life recent?” This kind question will make people want to give their individual contribution, thereby making the entire session interesting.

The easiest way to make your presentation session boring is to ask a Closed ended question that will require your audience to just say Yes or No. For instance, “Has Social Media Changed the way you live your life?” questions like this are one sided and everybody will just chorus Yes or No.

#2 Tell a Story that is relevant to the point you are trying to make

Another good way to start a presentation is to tell a story relevant to the point you are trying to make. This is a great technique that most public speakers, salesmen and other professionals use during presentation.

A short and interesting story will capture the attention of your audience and they will want to listen more.

When you tell your story very well, your audience will be eager to relate the story with the rest part of the presentation. This will make them to be attentive and follow the presentation passionately till the end.

#3 Make a Bold Statements

Making bold statements is another good tip on how to start a presentation. One of the greatest mistakes people make during presentation is the use of cliche. Cliche are overused phrased like; “The world is changing, meetings matter, etc.

Make bold statements that will make your audience believe that you are very knowledgeable in the subject matter. When you start your presentation with bold and factual statement, your audience will definitely be interested in whatever you want to say.

#4 Tell Your Audience to Imagine Something

Another tip on how to start a presentation is to make your audience imagine something with you. When you deploy this technique, you will capture about 70% of the audience’s attention. For instance; if you are marketing an internet solution to client, you can ask them this. “Imagine you are able to fulfill all your task at work today, due to the speed of your internet connection”?

This will capture their attention and as they will be eager to know how to get speed and efficient internet connection.

#5 Lead with a unique quote

This is another good tip on how to start a presentation. Always start your presentation with a unique quote. Think carefully and come up with a quote that your audience are not familiar with.

Don’t use quote like “Never give up, keep trying”, this is very popular. Try something like “Hire a lazy person to do a difficult job, because a lazy person will find an easy way to do it.”

This also applies to a fact, never state a fact that your audience is familiar with. Come up with something that they haven’t heard before and mind blowing. If you can do this, you will capture their attention easily.

These are the tips on how to start a presentation. This are the great techniques that sales superstars, iconic public speakers and professionals deploy during presentation.

Finally, in any presentation, first impression matters a lot. So, try to create a good and lasting impression about yourself to the audience.

Set for the next presentation? Go blow your audience’s mind with thought provocative ideas and speech.

Source http://www.24hoursreporter.com/2018/06/16/how-to-start-a-presentation-capture-audience/

Guy Received $295 From His Former Boss By Accident, Discovers How Much Of An A$sh0le He Really Is


These days most transactions between people take place online, with things like mobilepay, bank transfers and PayPal making life easier for all of us. Its pretty hard to mess it up and send money to the wrong person this way, but, as this guy proved, it can happen. If it ever does happen to you, he has given us a perfect example of how NOT to deal with it.

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