Welcome back, my budding hackers!
One of the most popular areas of hacking for those
starting out is hacking Wi-Fi. This area has been rife with
vulnerabilities and insecurities over the years and nearly
everyone wants to take advantage of this. When Wi-Fi was
first developed in the late 90's, the original encryption/
security standard, Wired Equivalent privacy or WEP, was
easily cracked in minutes by statistical methods. When it
was improved with WPA, Wi-Fi hacking became more
difficult, but still very doable. With the arrival of WPA2-
PSK, we are reliant upon capturing the hash (easy) and
then brute forcing the password (time consuming).
As the wireless access points proliferated, many
manufacturers attempted to make them simpler to setup.
To this end, many offered the "push a button" to set up.
This was referred to as the Wi-fi Protected Setup or WPS.
This easy setup unfortunately was also easily cracked. If
the Wi-Fi AP you are targeting has WPS, then this is the
best way to hack it.
Wi-Fi Protected Setup or WPS
The idea behind the WPS was to simplify the setup of
wireless access points for the non-technical home user.
Usually, an 8 digit PIN was printed on the outside of the
router and then the device would be authenticated with
this PIN. The device would then generate a complex PSK
that would be virtually dictionary attack proof.
To attack the WPS, we then need only to need to brute-
force the PIN. With 8 digits, that would seem to imply 10
to 8th power (10 x 10 x10 x 10x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10) of
possibilities. Fortunately, the eighth digit is a check sum,
so now the number of possibilities is down to 10 to 7th
power or about 10,000,000. This is certainly a doable
number given enough time. Fortunately for us, the
manufacturers actually broke down this number into two
pieces, the first 4 digit and the second 3 digits. As a
result, we only need to crack first a PIN with 10 to the 4th
power of possibilities or 10,000 possibilities and another
with 10 to 3rd power possibilities or 1000. This means that
to crack the PIN on these devices we only need to try
11,000 possibilities! This is certainly a very doable number
for a brute force attack!
In this tutorial, we will be using a tool specially designed
to brute-force the WPS PIN named Reaver. Since it is
built into Kali and other Linux security distributions, there
is no need to download or install anything.
Let's get started hacking that WPS enabled Wi-Fi AP!
Step #1:Reconnaissance for WPS Enabled AP's
Before we can attack the WPS, we need to find AP's that
have WPS enabled and not locked. The developers of
Reaver have provided a recon tool called wash with
Reaver that does just that!
First , we need to put our wireless interface into monitor
(promiscuous) mode with airmon-ng.
kali > airmon-ng start wlan0
Now, let's check to see whether any of the AP's in the
area have WPS enabled and unlocked. The syntax for
kali > wash -i <interface>
So, if you wireless network device is wlan0, airmon-ng
will likely change its name to something like wlan0mon
(make certain to use the actual monitor device name
available near the bottom of airmon-ng output). This
would give us a command like that below;
kali > wash -i wlan0mono
address of the AP. We will need that in the next step.
Step #2 Cracking the PIN with Reaver
Next, let's get to cracking that WPS PIN. Remember, we
have to try up 11,000 possible PIN's so this may take
awhile, usually several hours. The basic syntax for the
Reaver command looks like this;
kali >reaver -i wlan0mon -b <BSSID> -S -v
wlan0mon is the name of our wireless device in
BSSID is the MAC address of the AP we are
Once it starts, it identifies the AP name, the number of
maximum attempts, the manufacturer and the model
name. It then begins trying all 11,000 possible PINS.
Reaver provides one more way to crack Wi-Fi access. It
only works on systems with WPS enabled and unlocked,
so it it crucial that you run the recon tool wash first. When
you find a WPS
Tip number 1.
Remove Widgets from your Homescreen
Have you noticed that your homescreen isn’t as snappy as it used to be? Widgets – while useful – can slow down performance significantly. Try removing widgets to see if that makes a difference.
The most performance-intensive widgets are:
-Ones that constantly access the internet, like a Twitter widget or sports scores widget
-Ones that have lots of fancy visual effects
Many people are surprised to find out how much this can effect performance.
While you’re removing widgets, remove live wallpapers as well.
An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing.
Cookies are messages that web servers pass to your web browser when you visit Internet sites. Your browser stores each message in a small file, called cookie.txt .
When you request another page from the server, your browser sends the cookie back to the server.
The Tecno Pouvoir 2 comes with dual SIM slots and supports the 2G, 3G and it does not support the 4G LTE Band for its connectivity. It has inbuilt with it Wi-Fi capability and the ability to create Wireless Hotspots.
The Tecno Pouvoir 2 comes with a display of 6 inches. It uses the IPS LCD display technology. It has a resolution of 1440 by 720 pixel. The display is quite good quality for phones within this price range.
Processor and GPU
The Tecno Pouvoir 1 boast of a Quad (Four) Core processor clock at 1.3 GHz, the chipset is the MediaTek MT6580. The GPU is the Mali 400 MP2.
The Tecno Pouvoir 2 also comes with a 2 GB of RAM and Internal Memory of 16 GB. The storage space can be expanded via the micro-SD slot (Maximum allowable Storage for Micro-SD is 32 GB and it uses a dedicated slot).
The Tecno Pouvoir 2 comes with HiOS based on Android™ 8.1.
The Tecno Pouvoir 2 makes use a8MP Front + 13MP Rear Camera with LED flash light.
The Tecno Pouvoir 2 has a battery with the capacity of 5000 mAh. The Battery uses the Li-Po technology and it is non removable. This battery could last for 4 days on an average heavy usage.
As widely expected, the Infinix Hot 6 Pro arrives with a Qualcomm processor, the Snapdragon 425, a pair of cameras at the back (13 megapixels + 2 megapixels) and an 18:9 display. They also feature face unlock.
Specifications of the device are as follows:
Display 6-inch HD+ (1440 x 720 pixels)
Camera Main camera: 13MP + 2MP
Secondary camera: 5MP
Processor Snapdragon 425
Memory 2GB RAM, 16GB ROM onboard storage (expandable via microSD)
Operating System Android Oreo
Connectivity Bluetooth, Wi-Fi
Others Fingerprint sensor (at the back), Dual-SIM
Your cash flow is the one of the most important factors in your financial life. Understanding your cash flow is all about knowing where your money comes from and where it’s going. Ideally, you have more money coming in than going out — but that’s not the reality for everyone.
Whether you want to stop living paycheck to paycheck, need extra cash to pay off debt, or want to save for a future goal, knowing how to increase cash flow can help you get there faster.
As you’re working on spending less or saving more, it’s essential to keep track of these numbers. Over time, you’ll become more familiar with your spending habits, and it will be easier to know which levers to pull to keep your monthly cash flow strong.
How to increase cash flow
Your net cash flow is your monthly income minus your monthly expenses.
The higher your net cash flow, the better. This gives you more flexibility in working toward your financial goals and liquidity to weather the unexpected. These five simple tips can help you increase personal cash flow.
1. Boost your income
Depending on your situation, bringing in more money may be easier than cutting back on expenes. The good news is that there are a plethora of ways to do it.
Start with your paycheck. Use the IRS’ withholding calculator to make sure you’re not having too much federal and state tax withheld from your paychecks. If you are, you can fill out a new W-4 to give to your employer.
Next, review your deductions to make sure you don’t have anything unnecessary deducted every payday.
Are you paying for an insurance plan that you’re not using? Maybe you can downgrade to a lower tier to save money. Perhaps you’re donating a portion of your paycheck to charity. Is it possible to reduce your contribution or hold off until you’re more confident in your financial situation?
Finally, look for options to increase your income through more work. This can include asking for overtime at your day job, starting a business on the side, or doing odd jobs. The more income streams you create, the easier it will be to maintain a higher cash flow.
2. Cut your expenses
While earning more income makes it easier to increase personal cash flow, it also makes it easier to spend more.
If you have a budget, it may have been a while since you last evaluated it. Over time, needs and expenses change. Take a long, hard look at your budget and decide if there’s anything you can reasonably cut.
If you don’t have a budget, now is a good time to look at where your money is going and where you can stop any bleeding.
For example, if you’re not binging on Netflix or Hulu as much as you used to, it might be worth it to cut that subscription. Have you been living off DoorDash and Grubhub? Set a goal to cook for yourself more often. Each note you make about how you can improve your budget should include a dollar goal.
After you’ve set your goals, keep track of your transactions to make sure you’re spending in line with them. Over time, it’ll become easier to eliminate certain expenses to stay within your budget.
3. Pay off debt
Each U.S. household has an average of $6,662 in credit card debt alone. That’s not to mention auto, student, or mortgage loans, or medical debt.
If you’re one of the many people with debt, getting rid of it is a highly effective way to increase your cash flow. And a couple of the best strategies for doing so are the debt snowball and debt avalanche.
Each method is a bit different in regards to which loans you target, but both encourage you to pay off one loan as quickly as possible, then apply that payment to your next loan until it’s paid off, and so on.
Once you’ve paid off one loan, you’ll free up the cash you were putting toward the monthly payment. What’s more, if you put that extra cash toward your other debts, you can accelerate your debt payoff.
4. Refinance your debt
If you’re not in a position to pay off your debt more quickly, another option is to refinance your debt. You can refinance most types of loans, including student loans, car loans, and home loans. If you have high-interest credit card debt, you can consolidate it with a personal loan, which typically offers a lower interest rate.
Take stock of each of your loans and shop around to see if there’s a way to get a lower interest rate. Then use a refinancing calculator to determine if the savings are worth it.
If you qualify, refinancing can lower your interest rate, your monthly payment, or both.
With a lower interest rate, you’ll also pay less in interest over the life of the loan. And a lower monthly payment means you free up a little extra cash every month to put toward your financial goals.
5. Plan for infrequent recurring expenses
Even if you’re working on all of the four preceding tips, there are certain expenses that come up at random and throw off your progress.
A semi-annual car insurance premium, your Amazon Prime annual membership fee, and the holidays are all a given each year. But since they happen so infrequently, it can be tough to plan for them.
Keep a list of each of your recurring expenses that don’t come up every month and consider putting a small amount of money into a separate savings account each month. That way your cash flow can stay steady throughout the year and you won’t be derailed by these expenses.
Increase personal cash flow to reach your goals
If you’re cash flow negative or neutral, learning how to increase cash flow is the best thing you can do to reach your financial goals. There’s no one best way to do it, but it is important to find something that works for you.
Create a plan based on your situation and the available options and set short- and long-term goals to put that plan into action. It may take some time to make significant improvements, but over time you’ll see how little changes can make a big difference.