Welcome back, my budding hackers!
One of the most popular areas of hacking for those
starting out is hacking Wi-Fi. This area has been rife with
vulnerabilities and insecurities over the years and nearly
everyone wants to take advantage of this. When Wi-Fi was
first developed in the late 90's, the original encryption/
security standard, Wired Equivalent privacy or WEP, was
easily cracked in minutes by statistical methods. When it
was improved with WPA, Wi-Fi hacking became more
difficult, but still very doable. With the arrival of WPA2-
PSK, we are reliant upon capturing the hash (easy) and
then brute forcing the password (time consuming).
As the wireless access points proliferated, many
manufacturers attempted to make them simpler to setup.
To this end, many offered the "push a button" to set up.
This was referred to as the Wi-fi Protected Setup or WPS.
This easy setup unfortunately was also easily cracked. If
the Wi-Fi AP you are targeting has WPS, then this is the
best way to hack it.
Wi-Fi Protected Setup or WPS
The idea behind the WPS was to simplify the setup of
wireless access points for the non-technical home user.
Usually, an 8 digit PIN was printed on the outside of the
router and then the device would be authenticated with
this PIN. The device would then generate a complex PSK
that would be virtually dictionary attack proof.
To attack the WPS, we then need only to need to brute-
force the PIN. With 8 digits, that would seem to imply 10
to 8th power (10 x 10 x10 x 10x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10) of
possibilities. Fortunately, the eighth digit is a check sum,
so now the number of possibilities is down to 10 to 7th
power or about 10,000,000. This is certainly a doable
number given enough time. Fortunately for us, the
manufacturers actually broke down this number into two
pieces, the first 4 digit and the second 3 digits. As a
result, we only need to crack first a PIN with 10 to the 4th
power of possibilities or 10,000 possibilities and another
with 10 to 3rd power possibilities or 1000. This means that
to crack the PIN on these devices we only need to try
11,000 possibilities! This is certainly a very doable number
for a brute force attack!
In this tutorial, we will be using a tool specially designed
to brute-force the WPS PIN named Reaver. Since it is
built into Kali and other Linux security distributions, there
is no need to download or install anything.
Let's get started hacking that WPS enabled Wi-Fi AP!
Step #1:Reconnaissance for WPS Enabled AP's
Before we can attack the WPS, we need to find AP's that
have WPS enabled and not locked. The developers of
Reaver have provided a recon tool called wash with
Reaver that does just that!
First , we need to put our wireless interface into monitor
(promiscuous) mode with airmon-ng.
kali > airmon-ng start wlan0
Now, let's check to see whether any of the AP's in the
area have WPS enabled and unlocked. The syntax for
kali > wash -i <interface>
So, if you wireless network device is wlan0, airmon-ng
will likely change its name to something like wlan0mon
(make certain to use the actual monitor device name
available near the bottom of airmon-ng output). This
would give us a command like that below;
kali > wash -i wlan0mono
address of the AP. We will need that in the next step.
Step #2 Cracking the PIN with Reaver
Next, let's get to cracking that WPS PIN. Remember, we
have to try up 11,000 possible PIN's so this may take
awhile, usually several hours. The basic syntax for the
Reaver command looks like this;
kali >reaver -i wlan0mon -b <BSSID> -S -v
wlan0mon is the name of our wireless device in
BSSID is the MAC address of the AP we are
Once it starts, it identifies the AP name, the number of
maximum attempts, the manufacturer and the model
name. It then begins trying all 11,000 possible PINS.
Reaver provides one more way to crack Wi-Fi access. It
only works on systems with WPS enabled and unlocked,
so it it crucial that you run the recon tool wash first. When
you find a WPS
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Labels: How Tos